Depression in rural communities validating the ces d scale

Background Depression is among the top mental health problems with a major contribution to the global burden of disease.This study aimed at identifying the latent factor structure and construct validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale.Measures The CES-D Scale, Primary Care PTSD (PC-PTSD) screener, premigration and postmigration living difficulties checklist, Oslo Social Support Scale (OSS-3), Sense of Coherence Scale (So C-13), Coping Style Scale and fast alcohol screening test (FAST) were administered concurrently.Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to test prespecified factor structures of CES-D.Therefore, there is a need for a cross-cultural study to ensure measurement equivalence (measurement invariance) of CES-D, before this measure is used in a given culture.4 Although most symptoms of depression are universal, problems related to validity and reliability of depression in African settings should be understood in light of ethnocentric conceptualisations.5 6 Symptoms of depression vary across cultures; this implies the possibility of incompatibility between existing measures of depression and local concepts of distress.5 CES-D is a scale for the measurement of clinical depression, originally designed for the general population.

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For example, in a Turkish sample, the psychometric properties (ie, fit indices) of the four-factors structure of CES-D were found to be weak.16 Besides its application to the general population, CES-D was employed in different groups of vulnerable populations, including prisoners in Nepal,17 genocide survivors in Rwanda,18 Eritrean refugees in USA19 and Bosnian refugees.20 It was also used to measure depression among Korean immigrants in Canada.21 The instrument has been translated into many languages, employed in different ethnic groups, used for various groups of patients and wider age groups to study depression.16 Differences in the factor structures of CES-D have been reported in those studies.

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